General Studies Mains

Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

Indian PaintingsPrehistoric PaintingsThe prehistoric art helps us to find the gradual development of primitive man. This art shows symbolism and it shows that the primitive man took inspiration from the nature. At some places, we also find that a pinch of spirituality was added to the worldly things in some…
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Mains-02: Indian Literature is under development.
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Mains-03: Indian Architecture is under development.
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Mains-04: Modern Indian History – Significant Events is under development.
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Mains-05: Modern Indian History – Significant Personalities is under development.
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Mains-06: Modern Indian History – Significant Issues
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Mains-7: Indian Freedom Struggle – Significant Stages
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Mains-08: Indian Freedom Struggle – Significant Contributors
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[This document is based on our previous module and has around 10 new questions apart from the existing content in previous module. We have reorganized it in the form of questions and answers, but not limited ourselves to word limit] Part-A: Political Events Religion as Basis of Partition 1.       Although…
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This document covers French Revolution, Rise and Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte , Napoleonic Wars - their outcome; War of Austrian Succession, American War of Independence, Rise of Nationalism, Unification of Italy, Unification of Germany, The Industrial Revolution, Mercantilism and related theories, Socialism and related concepts, Feminism: Seneca Falls Convention, Russian…
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This document gives brief overview of Imperialism, Neoimperialism, Colonialism, Neocolonialism, patterns of colonial control, Imperialism in Africa, China and Japan. Some key words include Social Darwinism, Scramble for Africa, Policy of Splendid Isolation, Boer Wars, Moroccan Crises, Gunboat Diplomacy, Opium Wars, Open Door Policy, Japanese Isolationalism, Meiji Reforms etc.Model QuestionsMany…
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Model Questions Why are MAIN (Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism) considered long-term causes of WWI? Discuss. "The Triple Alliance of 1882 was an utterly fragile web of the treaties." Analyze. To what extent the turmoil in Balkans was responsible for WW-I? Examine. What motivated Italy to enter the First World…
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Model QuestionsWhat was Cold War? How did Cold War originate? How it was spread? Discuss."Despite all the show of morality and democratic pretensions, the Truman Doctrine was far from being flawless." Critically examine the statement.What was Marshall Plan? What was response of Soviet Union towards Marshall Plan? To what extent,…
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The most often noticed feature of Indian society is “Unity in Diversity”. This phrase celebrates how India has been stronger by welcoming various cultural, social and ethnic elements. It also transcends the notion accommodation without assimilation has been the key feature of Indian civilization. India has accommodated different elements of society…
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Social Institutions: Family, Marriage and Kinship: Please read this blog for basic knowledge about family; this blog about marriage and this one for kinship. These provide only fundamental knowledge and don’t need to be included here for GS Mains.Concept of HUF and Recent HC JudgementIn January, 2016, in a landmark…
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Mains-16: Role of women and women’s organization is under development.
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Model QuestionsPrelims MCQ TopicsDependency Ratio, Demographic Transition Theory, Age Sex Pyramids, Push Pull Factors of Migration, Birth Rate, Death Rate, Total Fertility Rate, Demographic Dividend & Longevity Dividend, Census Act Provisions, Canvasser method and ‘householder’ method of enumeration, Population Extremes (highest, lowest states, districts), SECC Objectives, data, angle of deprivation,…
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Model QuestionsWhy defining poverty line is a controversial issue in India? Explain.Why the calorie based model of estimation of poverty has been discarded in recent approaches? Discuss.At present, whether a person is below the poverty line or not is measured on the basis of daily expenditure. What are flaws in…
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For basic knowledge related to 74th amendment, please read this blog on GKToday.Definition of Statutory Town, Census Town and Urban AgglomerationsThe term “urban” is used in demographic as well as sociological sense. In demographic sense, the urban areas are defined as per population, population density or other such quantifiable criteria.…
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Mains-20: Effects of Globalization on Indian Society is under development.
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Mains-21: Social Empowerment, Communalism, Regionalism & Secularism is under development.
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Mains-22: Salient Features of World’s Physical Geography is under development.
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Mains-23: Distribution of key Natural Resources Across the World is under development.
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Mains-24: Distribution of key Natural Resources across India is under development.
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1. Account for the spatial distribution of food gathering as main economic activity around the world. Food gathering is the lowest order of economic activity. This occupation today persists largely in the equatorial and tropical areas. The chief areas where food gathering survives as a mode of life even today…
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Mains-26: Factors Responsible for Location of Industries Across India
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Mains-27: Important Geophysical Phenomena
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Mains-28: Changes in Critical Geographical Features
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Model Questions"The object of the regulating act was good, but system that it established was imperfect." Discuss Critically while elucidating how the defects of the Regulating Act were removed?"One of the biggest problems created by the Regulating Act was the tussle between the Supreme Court and the Governor General in…
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Model QuestionsUnited States is thrice in size in area in comparison to India and has 50 states in comparison to 29 states in India. Still, US has a small constitution. Justify the reasons keeping both the countries in focus.To what extent India’s demography and social diversity is responsible for mammoth…
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Background: Procedure of amendment of the ConstitutionPart XX of the Constitution of India has only one article that is Article 368 that deals with the amendment of the Constitution.  As per this article, Parliament may add, amend or repeal any provision of the constitution as per the procedure laid down…
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Model Questions Describe the emergence of Basic Structure concept in the Indian Constitution. (1994) Explain the importance of Basic Structure doctrine in amending the constitution. “April 24, 1973 is very important in the history of India”. Explain the significance of Kesavananda Bharati case and also state its implications. “The attempt…
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Model QuestionsExamine the role of Rajya Sabha in keeping the balance of law making powers between Union and States.What do you understand by Doctrine of Territorial Nexus? Discuss the importance of this doctrine towards Indian federation."Power of parliament to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory…
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Model QuestionsTo what extent, Indian federalism is responsible for regionalism in India? Discus.To what extent, regionalism is responsible for the type of federalism we have? Discuss.The emergence of insurgencies in India is closely linked to various problems at home; the problems of centre-state relations and of relations among the states.What…
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Mains-35: Devolution of Powers and Finances up to Local Levels is under development.
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Model Questions"In Indian Constitution, separation of functions is followed and not of powers." Explain while throwing light upon various provisions in the constitution.Critically examine the scope of Article 131 of the constitution towards Redressal of inter-state dispute. Why the Supreme Court provided that a dispute under this article must be…
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Mains-37: Comparison of Indian Constitutional Scheme with Other Countries is under development.
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38. Parliament and State Legislatures in India is under development.
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Mains-39: Various Issues Related to Executive & Judiciary in India is under development.
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Model Questions"Pressure Groups are sometimes known as informal face of the politics." Explain while differentiating them with political parties.Differentiate between interest & cause groups; and insider & outsider groups. What role do they play in polity? Discuss with examples.Discuss the various functions of Pressure groups while commenting their role on…
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Part-I: Select Statutory BodiesNational Commission for WomenThe National Commission for Women is a statutory body established in January 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990. This commission was for the first time recommended by Committee on Status of Women in India in 1974 and then successive commissions and…
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Model Questions for Mains"The Representation of Peoples Acts have been amended for several times, often witnessing a progressive improvement in the election process and sometimes reflecting the tussle between the executive and judiciary." Discuss Critically."Only an elector can be a representative. If a person is not qualified to vote, he…
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Mains-43: Government Policies and Interventions For Development in Various Sectors is under development.
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Mains-44: Development processes and the development industry in India is under development.
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Mains-45: Welfare Schemes For Vulnerable Sections is under development.
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Mains-46: Mechanisms & Laws for Protection of Vulnerable Sections is under development.
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Model QuestionsExamine India's performance in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to public health. What lessons can be learnt to achieve related Sustainable Development Goals? Discuss.What are the challenges or providing Universal Healthcare in India? Do you agree with the view that tax-financed model of UHC is more suitable…
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Model QuestionsWhat were the major implications of moving "Education" from state list to concurrent list in the seventh schedule of the constitution? Discuss keeping in view the past National Education Policies of India.Discuss the salient features of draft National Education Policy, 2016. To what extent, this policy addresses the problems…
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Mains-49: Issues Relating to Poverty and Hunger
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Mains-50: Governance & E-governance is under development.
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Can better pay and privatisation reduce corruption? Corruption which is breeding like a cancer in the Indian society is a root cause of many socio-economic problems. The proposed solutions to combat corruption include Better pay scale for the government employees Privatisation Augusto Lopez-Claros, then director of the Global Indicators Group…
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Civil Service refers to the body of government employees entrusted with the duty to carry out administration and implementation of government policy. Civil Services include those branches of public service which are not legislative, judicial or military.Constitutional Provisions Regarding Civil ServicesThe Constitution of India provides for the creation of All…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

Model QuestionsWhile discussing about India’s foreign policy, many observers connect the ancient Indian strategic thought of Kautilya with contemporary Indian strategy. To what extent is it justified? Discuss keeping in reference the Rajamandala and Shadguna concepts as propounded by Kautilya."Foreign policy of the Government of British India was basically foreign…
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GS Mains-: 54 - Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements is under development.
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Mains-55: Developed versus Developing Countries & India’s Interests is under development.
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Mains-56: Indian Diaspora is under development.
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Mains-57: Important International Institutions, Agencies and Fora is under development.
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Model QuestionsPrelims TopicsIndicative Planning versus Imperative Planning, Perspective Planning, National Planning Committee, Gandhian Plan and Sarvodaya Plan, Domer-Mahalanobis Model, Rolling Plans, NITI Aayog - Composition & Objectives, Difference between NITI Aayog & Planning CommissionMains Model QuestionsIndependent India chose the path of socialism because that was the dominating thought when British…
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Model QuestionsIn India, most part of saving is generated by the households but bulk of those savings is locked into unproductive physical assets. What are the major implications of this on resource mobilization? While elucidating the government action, put forward your policy suggestions."India has been traditionally a country of mass…
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Model QuestionsPrelims MCQ TopicsDifference between Economic Growth and Economic Development, Composition of Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, Multidimensional Poverty Index, Capital Formation, Supply of Capital, Gini coefficient, Special Category States."Economic growth means more output ... Development goes beyond this ...". In the light of your answer, comment on the…
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What do you mean by 'disguised unemployment'? Do you think that it can be used as a source of capital formation? Examine its limitations."Poverty and unemployment are inseparable twins". An effective anti-poverty programme should aim at solving the unemployment problem. ElucidateConcepts related to Labour ForceLabour Force refers to the number…
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Mains-62: Inclusive Growth and Issues arising from it is under development.
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Prelims MCQ TopicsFiscal Policy Versus Monetary Policy, Fiscal Policy Instruments, Impacts of Fiscal Policy Instruments, Taxation powers of states / governments, Concurrent / Residuary Powers of taxation, Income Tax, Corporation Tax, Sales Tax / VAT / CENVAT, Tax devolution, Votable and Non-Votable Expenditures, Cut motions, Vote on Account, Tax Revenue…
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Model QuestionsPrelims MCQ TopicsGross Cropped Area and Net Cropped Area, The share of agriculture in GDP of India, Share of agriculture in GCF (Gross Capital Formation), Current Growth Trends in Indian Agriculture, Issues with Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Workers as part of Population and Labour Force, Agri-Imports and Exports, Food Grains…
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Model QuestionsWhat do you understand by Command Area? Objectively differentiate between Gross Command Area and Culturable Command Area.Differentiate between Minor, Medium and Major Irrigation Schemes. Bring out their relative importance."Despite of heavy public expenditure on canals, our governments have not been able to reduce the groundwater depletion." Critically examine the…
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Marketing of Agricultural ProduceMarketing is an integral part of agriculture, it encourages the farmers to invest more and increase production.The simplest form of agricultural marketing is the buying and selling of the farm produce. However, in modern sense, the agricultural produce undergoes a series of exchanges from one hand to…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

Technology in AgriculturePrecision FarmingPrecision Farming refers to precise application of agricultural inputs based on soil, weather and crop requirement to maximize sustainable productivity, quality and profitability.  It includes the use of latest technologies such as remote sensing (RS), GPS, and geographical information system (GIS) with an objective to improve profitability…
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Mains-68: Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices is under development.
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Foodgrains Management and Public Distribution SystemOver 30 Lakh people of our country died due to starvation and malnutrition during the Bengal Famine of 1943, making it one of the greatest disasters in pre-independence India.  This famine was a result of several malign natural and man-made factors during the World War-II…
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Mains-70: Technology Missions is under development.
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Model QuestionsPrelims MCQ TopicsDistribution of Livestock in India, Livestock and the structural shift in the agricultural sector, Operation Flood, National Dairy Plan, consumption dynamics in Dairy products, Inland versus Marine Production, Inland Aquaculture & Blue Revolution, Institutional Structure for Support in Poultry, Basic Elements of Green Revolution. Mains Model QuestionsCritically…
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Mains-72: Food Processing and Related Industries is under development.
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Model QuestionsPrelims TopicsBali and Shadbhaga, Meaning of Land Grants, Earliest Land Grants, Iqta System, Khuts and Muqaddams, Mustkharaj, Mustkharaj, Revenue systems of Alauddin Khilji and Shershah, Patta and Kabuliyat, Polaj and Paruti, Dahsala system, Galla-bakhshi, Kankut, Nasaq, new land ownership policy of the British, Izaredar System, Features of Permanent Settlement,…
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Mains-74: Effects of Liberalization on Indian Economy is under development
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Model QuestionsDiscuss the Industrial Policy in India immediately before independence. What role was played by ideals of Indian constitution in framing the Industrial Policy of the newly independent nation? Examine."Apart from the four fold classification of the industries; the Industrial Policy 1948 endeavoured to protect cottage & small scale industries…
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Model Questions"Fly Ash was once discarded as a waste but today, it is increasingly emerging as a major input material in several industries." Discuss. Explain the distribution of coal resources of India throwing light on the coal quality and its impact on India's economy."The supreme court decision regarding cancellation of…
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Model QuestionsPrelims MCQ TopicsCommission of Railway Safety, Functions of Directorate General of Civil Aviation versus Airports Authority of India, Gagan Project, Open Sky Policy, 5/20 Rule, Route Dispersal Guidelines , Major Ports (please check trivia given in module), Differentiation between the Major Ports and Minor Ports, National Waterways, National Highway…
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Basic ConceptsFinancial Investment and Real InvestmentThe meaning of the term “investment” is different for economists than the rest of the world. When we ask our banker for investment, he / she would probably start taking about stocks, mutual funds, some deposit accounts or insurance products. But, for an economist, these…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

This is a compilation of short notes on key developments in various fields of science and technology including Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology in last one and half year. Mostly, UPSC asks the "significance" of such developments in its questions. All updates may not be…
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Science and Technology in Indus Valley CivilizationThe archaeological remains at various sites of the Indus Valley Civilization allow us to know about its technological progress. The key scientific developments and achievements by Indus Valley people include:Architecture and Civil EngineeringThe well planned urban centers based on definite layout pattern with scientific…
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Mains-81: Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology is under development.
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Mains-82: Issues Relating to Intellectual Property Rights is under development.
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Model QuestionsWhat do you understand by Environment Impact Assessment? Discuss its legal status, objectives and various stakeholders in India.Critically examine the importance of screening and scoping in terms of Environment Impact Assessment in India?Differentiate between "public consultation" and "public participation" in context with Environment Impact Assessment. Which one is more…
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Model QuestionsWhat do you understand by Primary, Secondary and Chronic Hazards? Examine the link between human activities and hazards.Differentiate between tangible and intangible Vulnerability? Discuss the politico-institutional, Economic and Socio-cultural causes of vulnerability.What do you understand by Disaster Management Cycle? As an administrator, what activities would you take under DM…
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Model QuestionsMCQ Topics for PrelimsProvisions of Article 371-A with respect to Nagaland, Kabaw Valley, Naga Hoho, Apunba Lup, Operation All Clear, Operation Rhino, Bodoland Territorial Council, Mautam Famine, Chronological order of creation of North East States (refer Greater Statehood sub-heading), Provisions of the Sixth Schedule, The ten such Councils and…
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External state and non-state actorsKautilya has written that a state could be at risk from four types of threats viz. internal, external, externally-aided internal and internally-aided external. Out of them, the internal threats should be taken care of immediately, for internal troubles, like the fear of the lurking snake, are…
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Communication networks refer to an interconnection of communicating entities such as computers, laptops, mobiles, telephones etc. via which provides the basis for information exchange for all other sectors including voice, data, video, and Internet connectivity. Communication network should not be confused with the computer networks such as LAN, WAN etc. because they are merely one form of the…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

Mainstream as well as social media may create internal security problem in the form of terrorism by instilling fear and an uncertain future. Mass media can also propagate the ideas of the threatening bodies to internal security in many cases. At the same time, due to the convenience, affordability and…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

In order to highlight the growing threat to information security in India and focus related actions, Government had set up an Inter Departmental Information Security Task Force (ISTF) with National Security Council as the nodal agency. The Task Force studied and deliberated on the issues such as National Information Security Threat Perceptions…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

Money Laundering and Its PreventionMoney laundering is the process by which large amounts of illegally obtained is given the appearance of having originated from a legitimate source. So basically, all the ways to convert the black money into white money are Money laundering. But in Money laundering, the black money must involve a predicate…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

State sponsored terrorism against India Pakistan based terrorist groups are bleeding India by sponsoring terrorist and militancy activities. The nexus between the state and non-state actors with an intention to bleed India is further complicating the security challenges of India. Steps taken to address the challenge Border Management Providing with…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

Linkages of Organized Crime with TerrorismOrganized crime mainly exploits legitimate activities for criminal purposes. The UNODC tried to give a definition to “organised crime” in the organised crime convention. So an organised crime may be defined as A group of three or more persons that was not randomly formed; Existing…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

Model QuestionsPrelims MCQ TopicsVarious Ranks, Commands & Equipments / Weapons in Indian Armed Forces, Various Ships, Submarines of Indian Navy, Indian Missiles, Basic information about Paramilitary Forces and CAPF.Mains Model Questions"There is no doubt that killings and human rights violations have occurred due to AFSPA but the problems posed by…
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Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationshipsNature & Scope of EthicsEthics {origin from Greek word Ethikos} is a key branch of philosophy, concerned with systematic study of right or wrong human actions & conduct in the backdrop of standards…
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Human Values, Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.Human Values and Value TheoryValues are the guiding principles of our lives. They are essential for positive human behaviour and actions in our daily lives. They are formed on the basis of interests, choices, needs, desires and preferences. They…
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Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behavior; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.Basic Theory on AttitudeAn attitude is a learned tendency to evaluate people, issues, objects or events in certain way. Such evaluations are often positive or negative, but they can also be uncertain /…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections. Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.Defining AptitudeAn aptitude is a component of a competency to do a certain kind of…
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Contribution of Moral Thinkers from India and WorldSocratesSocrates was the first systematic moral thinker, who led an exemplary life spending most of his time in philosophical discussion. He himself did not write anything. Instead he questioned people on philosophical issues, especially about the nature of the good life. He was…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration.  Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate…
Last modified: Dec 18, 2018

This document is under development.